Draft AC 61-16 v1.0 - Spin avoidance and stall recovery training

Closed 27 Jan 2020

Opened 18 Dec 2019

Results updated 24 Apr 2020

We conducted public consultation regarding draft AC 61-16 v1.0 - Spin avoidance and stall recovery training, from 18 December 2018 to 27 January 2019. 

We received 75 responses, of which 15 represented organisations.  Feedback received predominantly supported the proposal and indicated that the AC was fit for purpose.

Feedback identified the following themes:

  • A high level of support for training and testing of spin recovery balanced with recognition that there are fewer instructors and a shrinking fleet of aircraft capable of delivering this outcome.
  • Mandating training and testing of spinning, requiring all training to be conducted in aircraft certified for intentional spinning, would be cost prohibitive to students and industry.
  • Insufficient guidance regarding training for slow flight, stalling and stall with a wing drop.

As a result the following changes to the draft AC will be made:

  • It will be edited to include additional information on scenario-based training and the execution of slow flight and stalling exercises.
  • A consultation will be conducted for the amendment of Part 61 MOS to remove the requirement for entry and recovery from spins at the incipient stage, in favour of avoiding spins with increased emphasis in stall awareness and training recovery from wing drop at the stall. This will make it consistent with the proposal that formed the basis of this consultation.
  • The Flight Instructor Manual will be reviewed and amended in accordance with the AC and the consequential MOS amendments.
  • The Flight Examiner Handbook and Flight Test Forms will be amended in accordance with the AC and the consequential MOS amendments.

 

Files:

Published responses

View submitted responses where consent has been given to publish the response.

Overview

The purpose of this Advisory Circular (AC) is to highlight to flight training operators and instructors, the risks associated with advanced stalling training, when conducted in aircraft that are not certified for intentional spins and minimize the potential for negative transfer of training.

The induction of spins in aircraft not certified for spinning has been occurring in the flying training context. It is possible this is due to the confounding of the definitions of the words “wing drop” and “incipient spin” in training and practice and has resulted in loss of control in the air (LOC-I) incidents and fatalities. It is possible that instructors may be conducting training beyond the limits of their aircraft to meet training needs without proper consideration of potential outcomes.

This AC provides information and guidance regarding the conduct of advanced stalling exercises; in particular, stalls with a wing drop. Definitions of wing drop at the stall and spin at the incipient stage are clarified, certification standards providing margins of safety in specific modes of flight are discussed, and methods of training and practice are provided.

Draft AC 61-16 v1.0 is new and supports the ongoing activities of Part 61 of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR) – Flight Crew Licensing, where the regulations require that training must be conducted by an operator authorised by CASA under Parts 141 or 142 of CASR, in accordance with an approved syllabus of training. The training and assessment must be conducted by a person authorised by CASA and satisfy the standards specified in the Part 61 Manual of Standards (MOS).

Draft AC 61-16 v1.0 will also provide guidance for an upcoming proposed amendment to the Part 61 MOS, to change the practice of advanced stall training. This proposed amendment would remove the requirement for recovery of spins at the incipient stage, in favour of avoiding spins by training recovery from wing drop at the stall, making it consistent with spin avoidance and stall recovery training principles used in International Civil Aviation Organization upset prevention and recovery training (UPRT).

The benefits of replacing the “incipient spin” exercise with “stall with a wing drop” are:

  • alignment with ICAO UPRT training philosophy; in particular, spin avoidance and stall recovery training
  • increased awareness of aircraft limitations, and the extent to which an aircraft is tested for certification
  • removes the requirement for a spin to be induced with application of pro-spin rudder except for spin training activities which must be conducted in an aircraft certified for intentional spins.

This AC:

  • clarifies definitions of wing drop at the stall and spin at the incipient stage
  • discusses certification standards and the margins of safety provided in specific modes of flight
  • describes the safe conduct of advanced stalling exercises, in particular stalls with a wing drop, consistent with spin avoidance and stall recovery training principles used in ICAO training standards for personnel licensing and upset prevention and recovery training (UPRT) standards.

This AC will be of interest to:

  • Part 141 and 142 operators
  • Heads of Operations
  • Flight instructors
  • Flight examiners
  • Licensed pilots
  • Student pilots

Why we are consulting

This is the initial AC relating to spin avoidance and stall recovery training. We are seeking feedback on whether it provides adequate guidance on conducting advanced stalling exercises - in particular stalls with a wing drop. 

A copy of the draft AC is provided below. Please read the document before providing your feedback in the online survey.

Please note: CASA can no longer offer the option to upload files because of the potential risk of malware.

Using an iPad

If you are using an iPad to complete the survey you will be asked to 'download the relevant PDF'. Depending on the software you have on your iPad you may need to download the free viewer to review the single document PDF files. Where a file is a 'multi-file or portfolio PDF you will need to source the Adobe free view - available from iTunes. 

What happens next

At the end of the response period for public comment, we will review each comment and submission received through the online response form. We will make all submissions publicly available on the CASA website, unless you request your submission remain confidential. We will also publish a summary of consultation which summarises the feedback received, outlines any intended changes and details our plans for the AC.

Information about how we consult and how to make a confidential submission is available on the CASA website.

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Audiences

  • CASA Staff
  • Airworthiness organisations
  • Engineers

Interests

  • Airworthiness / maintenance
  • Aircraft certification and design